Posted by: The Sapia Science Blog | June 7, 2016

Science Final

 

 

 

  1. What are the instruments used to measure weather?
    • A THERMOMETER measures the air temperature.
    • A BAROMETER measures air pressure.
    • A WIND VANE is an instrument that determines the direction from which the wind is blowing.
    • An ANEMOMETER measures wind speed.

 

  1. What weather conditions can you expect from different clouds?
  • Stratus clouds – Light mist or drizzle sometimes falls out of these clouds.
  • Nimbus cloudsform a dark gray, wet looking cloudy layer associated with continuously falling rain or snow. They often produce precipitation that is usually light to moderate.
  • Cumulus clouds – fair weather

 

 

  1. What are the different parts of a weather report?

Temperature, wind speed and direction, humidity, precipitation, air pressure (high/low)

 

 

Key Vocabulary: Water

  • Contamination- biological and chemical
    • Biologicalcontaminants are organisms in water. They are also referred to as microbes or microbiological contaminants. (Examples of biological or microbial contaminants include bacteria, viruses, protozoan, and parasites).
    • Chemical contaminants are elements or compounds. These contaminants may be naturally occurring or man-made. (Examples of chemical contaminants include nitrogen, bleach, salts, pesticides, metals, toxins produced by bacteria, and human or animal drugs).

Acids –  A liquid that has a lot of hydrogen ions. Acids have a sour taste, are corrosive, change the color of certain vegetable dyes, such as litmus, from blue to red, and lose their acidity when they are combined with alkalies. pH below 6.

  • Bases – a liquid that has a lot of hydroxide ions. Bases taste bitter. Strong bases can be slippery and slimy feeling. pH above 8.
  • Neutral – Neither an acid or a base. pH of 7.

 

  • Universal solvent – water is called the “universal solvent” because it dissolves more substances than any other liquid

 

 

Phases of matter: solid, liquid, gas

  • Solidsare objects that keep their own shape and do not flow in a given temperature.  (Examples of solids are cars, books and clothes).  Solids can be different colors and textures, and they can be turned into different shapes, for example clay. Solids are made up of molecules which group together and don’t move around.
  • Liquidsdo not have their own shape, but can take the shape of the container they are in and they can flow at a given temperature.  (Examples of liquids are tea, water and blood). They can be different colors and thickness (for example, custard is a thicker liquid than tea and doesn’t flow as quickly as tea). You can measure a liquid in a cup or a spoon. Liquids are made up of molecules which are further apart than in solids and can move around easily.
  • Gasesare air-like substances that can move around freely or flow to fit a container and they don’t have their own shape.  You can put your hand through gases and you won’t feel them.  If they get out their container they can spread easily.  We are surrounded by different gases in the air we breathe. We can’t put gas into a measuring cup to measure its volume; it has to be worked out using a mathematical formula. Their molecules are spaced apart and bounce around.

 

  • Solvent – A substance that can dissolve another substance
  • Neutralize – The reaction of an acid with a base to form a salt and water. Usually, the reaction of hydrogen ions with hydrogen ions to form water molecules.

 

Analysis questions:

  1. What is the difference between biological and chemical contamination?
    • Biologicalcontaminants are organisms in water. They are also referred to as microbes or microbiological contaminants. Examples of biological or microbial contaminants include bacteria, viruses, protozoan, and parasites.
    • Chemical contaminants are elements or compounds. These contaminants may be naturally occurring or man-made. Examples of chemical contaminants include nitrogen, bleach, salts, pesticides, metals, toxins produced by bacteria, and human or animal drugs.
  1. How does the pH scale determine if a substance is an acid, base, or neutral?

Scientists use something called a pH scale to measure how acidic or basic a liquid is. pH is a number from 0 to 14. From 0 to 7 are acids, with 0 being the strongest. From 7 to 14 are bases with 14 being the strongest base. If a liquid has a pH of 7, it’s neutral. This would be something like distilled water.

 

  1. What are examples of biological and chemical contamination in water?

 

Biological contamination is contamination with fecal matter or natural forms of contamination. Chemical contamination is contamination with pesticides, fertilizers, or man-made contaminants.

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